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IBM 286 - patterns

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Can anyone tell me what the design patterns are covered in the IBM 286 exam?

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The Objectives do not specify which patterns you may be tested on ! Can you beat that ?

I don't know how many books mention the memento pattern, but I faced a question on this pattern for the 286 exam and I did not have a clue what the answer was. The thousands of pages of IBM tutorials that come with Websphere don't even mention this pattern, nor do popular J2EE design pattern books like 'Core j2ee patterns'. How did IBM expect me to prepare for this question ?

I failed the exam with 50% inspite of having passed the sample exam with 79% several study sessions before.

Beware Sample test is way easier compared to the real thing. I guess its IBM's strategy to make money, by encouraging people to give the real exam, by giving them a very easy sample exam.
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I think you'd study patterns with the Design Patterns book by Gamma at al. (Gang of Four). This is a must-have book for every programmer and you'll find the most important patterns there including Memento, Factory, Adapter and many others.

Regarding IBM sampe tests I found them very similar to the real ones. Checked for 484, 287 and 486.
Bianca Hagen
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Memento? Never heard of!
I fail the exam with 63%! So close...
I want to do it again next week but I don't want to buy a book for only 1 or 2 questions. I hoped that I could find the information on the internet but it's hard.
I will look for the patterns mentioned by you and hope the questions will be about these.
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An example of the memento pattern is the use of ejbPassivate() and ejbActivate()within a stateful session bean. Memento means taking a snapshot of state so it can be restored later.

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The following is a Java code-example of the Memento Design Pattern. In this code-example the state of an instance of a class called Originator is stored in a instance of class Memento. The orginator has a method createMemento and a method recoverFromMemento so that the following code can be used to save and restore the state:

Assume the Originator-object has a state consisting of just one variable with the name state. The complete code for the Originator-object could than be:

The Memento object could than be f.e.

Source: Allen, P.( 2003) study guide for the SCEA-examen, p. 259 (simplified).
[ June 18, 2004: Message edited by: Cor Lieftink ]
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I haven't read the Memento pattern. Are Serializable classes in Java that implement the below methods, an example of Memento pattern?

private void writeObject(java.io.ObjectOutputStream stream)
throws IOException;
private void readObject(java.io.ObjectInputStream stream)
throws IOException, ClassNotFoundException;
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Suppose you would like to save the internal state of an object so you
can restore it later. Ideally, it should be possible to save and restore this state
without making the object itself take care of this task, and without violating
encapsulation. This is the purpose of the Memento pattern.
Objects frequently expose only some of their internal state using
public methods, but you would still like to be able to save the entire state of
an object because you might need to restore it later. In some cases, you could
obtain enough information from the public interfaces (such as the drawing
position of graphical objects) to save and restore that data. In other cases, the
color, shading, angle and connection relationship to other graphical objects
need to be saved and this information is not readily available. This sort of
information saving and restoration is common in systems that need to support
Undo commands.
If all of the information describing an object is available in public
variables, it is not that difficult to save them in some external store. However,
making these data public makes the entire system vulnerable to change by
external program code, when we usually expect data inside an object to be
private and encapsulated from the outside world.
The Memento pattern attempts to solve this problem by having
privileged access to the state of the object you want to save. Other objects
have only a more restricted access to the object, thus preserving their
encapsulation. This pattern defines three roles for objects:
1. The Originator is the object whose state we want to save.
2. The Memento is another object that saves the state of the Originator.
3. The Caretaker manages the timing of the saving of the state, saves the
Memento and, if needed, uses the Memento to restore the state of the
Saving the state of an object without making all of its variables
publicly available is tricky and can be done with varying degrees of success
in various languages. Design Patterns suggests using the C++ friend
construction to achieve this access, and the Smalltalk Companion notes that it
is not directly possible in Smalltalk. In Java, this privileged access is possible
using a little known and infrequently used protection mode. Variables within
a Java class can be declared as
1. Private
2. Protected
3. Public, or
4. (private protected)
Variables with no declaration are treated as private protected. Other
classes can access public variables, and derived classes can access protected
variables. However, another class in the same module can access protected or
private-protected variables. It is this last feature of Java that we can use to
build Memento objects. For example, suppose you have classes A and B
declared in the same module:
public class A {
int x, y:
public Square() {}
x = 5; //initialize x
class B {
public B() {
A a = new A(); //create instance of A
System.out.println (a.x); //has access to variables in A
Class A contains a private-protected variable x. In class B in the same
module, we create an instance of A, which automatically initializes x to 5.
Class B has direct access to the variable x in class A and can print it out
without compilation or execution error. It is exactly this feature that we will
use to create a Memento.
Sample Code
Let�s consider a simple prototype of a graphics drawing program that
creates rectangles, and allows you to select them and move them around by
dragging them with the mouse. This program has a toolbar containing three
buttons: Rectangle, Undo and Clear:
The Rectangle button is a JToggleButton which stays selected until
you click the mouse to draw a new rectangle. Once you have drawn the
rectangle, you can click in any rectangle to select it;
and once it is selected, you can drag that rectangle to a new position using the
The Undo button can undo a succession of operations. Specifically, it can
undo moving a rectangle and it can undo the creation of each rectangle.
There are 5 actions we need to respond to in this program:
1. Rectangle button click
2. Undo button click
3. Clear button click
4. Mouse click
5. Mouse drag.
The three buttons can be constructed as Command objects and the
mouse click and drag can be treated as commands as well. This suggests an
opportunity to use the Mediator pattern, and that is, in fact, the way this
program is constructed.
Moreover, our Mediator is an ideal place to manage the Undo action
list; it can keep a list of the last n operations so that they can be undone. Thus,
the Mediator also functions as the Caretaker object we described above. In
fact, since there could be any number of actions to save and undo in such a
program, a Mediator is virtually required so that there is a single place where
these commands can be stored for undoing later.
In this program we save and undo only two actions: creating new
rectangles and changing the position of rectangles. Let�s start with our
visRectangle class which actually draws each instance of the rectangles:
public class visRectangle
int x, y, w, h;
Rectangle rect;
boolean selected;
public visRectangle(int xpt, int ypt) {
x = xpt; y = ypt; //save location
w = 40; h = 30; //use default size
public void setSelected(boolean b) {
selected = b;
private void saveAsRect() {
//convert to rectangle so we can use the contains method
rect = new Rectangle(x-w/2, y-h/2, w, h);
public void draw(Graphics g) {
g.drawRect(x, y, w, h);
if (selected) { //draw �handles�
g.fillRect(x+w/2, y-2, 4, 4);
g.fillRect(x-2, y+h/2, 4, 4);
g.fillRect(x+w/2, y+h-2, 4, 4);
g.fillRect(x+w-2, y+h/2, 4, 4);
public boolean contains(int x, int y) {
return rect.contains(x, y);
public void move(int xpt, int ypt) {
x = xpt; y = ypt;
Drawing the rectangle is pretty straightforward. Now, let�s look at
our simple Memento class, which is contained in the same file,
visRectangle.java, and thus has access to the position and size variables:
class Memento
visRectangle rect;
//saved fields- remember internal fields
//of the specified visual rectangle
int x, y, w, h;
public Memento(visRectangle r) {
rect = r; //Save copy of instance
x = rect.x; y = rect.y; //save position
w = rect.w; h = rect.h; //and size
public void restore() {
//restore the internal state of
//the specified rectangle
rect.x = x; rect.y = y; //restore position
rect.h = h; rect.w = w; //restore size
When we create an instance of the Memento class, we pass it the
visRectangle instance we want to save. It copies the size and position
parameters and saves a copy of the instance of the visRectangle itself. Later,
when we want to restore these parameters, the Memento knows which
instance it has to restore them to and can do it directly, as we see in the
restore() method.
The rest of the activity takes place in the Mediator class, where we
save the previous state of the list of drawings as an Integer on the undo list:
public void createRect(int x, int y)
unpick(); //make sure no rectangle is selected
if(startRect) //if rect button is depressed
Integer count = new Integer(drawings.size());
undoList.addElement(count); //Save previous list size
visRectangle v = new visRectangle(x, y);
drawings.addElement(v); //add new element to list
startRect = false; //done with this rectangle
rect.setSelected(false); //unclick button
pickRect(x, y); //if not pressed look for rect to select
and save the previous position of a rectangle before moving it in a Memento:
public void rememberPosition()
Memento m = new Memento(selectedRectangle);
Our undo method simply decides whether to reduce the drawing list
by one or to invoke the restore method of a Memento:
public void undo()
//get last element in undo list
Object obj = undoList.lastElement();
undoList.removeElement(obj); //and remove it
//if this is an Integer,
//the last action was a new rectangle
if (obj instanceof Integer)
//remove last created rectangle
Object drawObj = drawings.lastElement();
//if this is a Memento, the last action was a move
if(obj instanceof Memento)
//get the Memento
Memento m = (Memento)obj;
m.restore(); //and restore the old position
Consequences of the Memento
The Memento provides a way to preserve the state of an object while
preserving encapsulation, in languages where this is possible. Thus, data that
only the Originator class should have access to effectively remains private. It
also preserves the simplicity of the Originator class by delegating the saving
and restoring of information to the Memento class.
On the other hand, the amount of information that a Memento has to
save might be quite large, thus taking up fair amounts of storage. This further
has an effect on the Caretaker class (here the Mediator) which may have to
design strategies to limit the number of objects for which it saves state. In our
simple example, we impose no such limits. In cases where objects change in a
predictable manner, each Memento may be able to get by with saving only
incremental changes of an object�s state.
Other Kinds of Mementos
While supporting undo/redo operations in graphical interfaces is one
significant use of the Memento pattern, you will also see Mementos used in
database transactions. Here they save the state of data in a transaction where
it is necessary to restore the data if the transaction fails or is incomplete.
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