I don't think so.
As per the specs:
ejb-persistence, section 5.5
A container-managed entity manager must be a JTA entity manager. JTA entity managers are only specified for use in Java EE containers.
An application-managed entity manager may be either a JTA entity manager or a resource-local entity manager.
ejb-persistence, section 5.6
When a container-managed entity manager is used, the lifecycle of the persistence context is always managed automatically, transparently to the application, and the persistence context is propagated with the JTA transaction.
ejb-persistence, section 5.6.3
As described in section 5.1, a single persistence context may correspond to one or more JTA entity manager instances (all associated with the same entity manager factory).
The persistence context is propagated across the entity manager instances as the JTA transaction is propagated.
Propagation of persistence contexts only applies within a local environment. Persistence contexts are not propagated to remote tiers.
Finally, and more important (ejb-persistence, section 5.7):
[...] The extended persistence context obtained from the application-managed entity manager is a stand-alone persistence context�it is not propagated with the transaction.