There are only three general cases I use abstract classes for: 1) To dictate method procedure, as with a Template pattern 2) To define the general framework of class relationships, but leave certain implementation details wide open 3) As a specific case of 1) and 2), to dictate how a class must be constructed, but require all subclasses to implement one underlying type that puts it all together After those cases, I'm hard-pressed to use an abstract class over an interface. For the purposes of the exam, there's no advantage to using an abstract class that I can think of. ------------------ Michael Ernest, co-author of: The Complete Java 2 Certification Study Guide
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