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Casting

 
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hi,

public class Test8{
public static void main(String a[]){
byte b = 1;
char c = 2;
short s = 3;
int i = 4;

c = b; // 1
s = b; // 2
i = b; //3
s = c * b; //4
}
}
Which of the following are correct?

A1 Error at mark 1
A2 Error at mark 2
A3 Error at mark 3
A4 Error at mark 4
The answer is error at mark 1 and 4
Again,

public class Test9{
public static void main(String a[]){
final byte b = 1;
char c = 2;
short s = 3;
int i = 4;

c = b; // 1
s = b; // 2
i = b; //3
s = c * b; //4
}
}
Which of the following are correct?

A1 Error at mark 1
A2 Error at mark 2
A3 Error at mark 3
A4 Error at mark 4

The answer is error at mark4.Please can anybody explain what difference the modifier final makes? Also i often get confused about the casting and conversion,can anybody elaborate in simple language?

Thankyou
 
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The main point of this question is, what does the compiler know?

Consider this declaration.



1 is an int, but because 1 is a constant at compile-time, its value can be placed into a byte because it is known that 1 is small enough to be stored in a byte.

But then if you say

,

then the compiler will complain. Because all that it knows about b is that b is of type byte. A general byte cannot be stored directly in a char. The byte must first be converted to an int before it is stored in the char. This
requires a cast.

However, if you have the declaration

,

then the compiler knows the value of b, not just that it is of type byte.

Since the value of b is a constant at compile-time, the compiler knows it can place the value of b into a char.
 
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To answer your first question, you get loss of precision errors at both marks 1 and 4 in the following code.



The reason for this is the implicit casting that occurs when you use the assignment operator.

Mark 1 is a widening conversion, so you might expect it to be fine. The issue is that byte (and short) are signed in Java; char is unsigned, so it is possible to lose information during this conversion.

Mark 4 has a slightly different issue. The result of multiplying a char will be an int. Trying to assign the result to a short is a narrowing cast.
 
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