I read from the textbook: 'Method are bound at run time where as variables are bound at compile time. It is the type of object which will tell which method to be called but it is the type of reference which will tell you which variable is to be called' Firstly I presume it is the JVM which will 'bound the method' at runtime and also 'bound the variables' at compile time. But really, what are the reasons for such different treatments by the JVM? Is it because methods are meant to do more calculations than variables?
Did you really read those sentences verbatim from a textbook? They're not much better than nonsense. Perhaps they've lost something in translation. In any case, it is true that precisely which method will be called often isn't decided until runtime. I'm sure you'll benefit a lot from reading the JavaRanch campfire story about polymorphism, which explains why this is and how it works. It's also true that there's no similar mechanism for variables; the Java compiler knows precisely which variable in which class will be accessed at runtime when it's compiling code using the variable. So I imagine this is the point the textbook was trying to make. Once you've read the campfire story and understand how polymorphic methods work, I think you'll agree that doing the same thing for variables just doesn't make any sense.