As a manager myself I follow a strict rule of credit where it is due. Besides which, when my team does well I look good anyway.
However, one thing I learned as a developer is that you should
never be afraid to toot your own horn. Your manager was routinely coming to you with questions and passing along docs that you had prepared. At some point you owe it to yourself to find ways to interact with the people who are going to be receiving the end results of your work. If a manager is not allowing you to interact with other teams, other managers, or customers when you show a willingness to do so then they are likely up to something.
In my case, I am looking for ways to get my team more involved in the process without getting them invited to every meeting on the planet. I recently removed my name from a design document because one of the development leads made such extensive changes that I didn't feel right about my name being associated with it even though I was the original author. At the point their effort on the task exceeded my own it was only fair that they receive the credit for the work. Besides, my name is still in the revisions
If a manager is really looking out for your career they'll be finding ways to put you forward and get your name out there. I'm a little surprised by your manager's actions because one of the ways I have been so successful in my career is by being an advocate for other team members and finding ways to help less experienced developers become senior developers. He could have achieved the same result and helped you at the same time.