The Man-Dog example is called "association"; a Man does not cease to be a Man if the Dog dies.
The examples I have given are called "composition"; an Aeroplane without a Wing is no longer an aeroplane in the fullest sense of the word. And if you disagree, try taking the wings off your aeroplane at 29000 feet
This parrot is no more. It has ceased to be. Now it's a tiny ad: