And even if you could, it would be useless--it would be the path of the file on the *client* machine, not the server. And different browsers include different information in that path--some put the entire path (incorrect behavior), some just the filename. Save the file locally, save *that* path in the DB.
When the image is uploaded, it needs to be saved on the server somewhere. You can either save the image file in the file system, then save the path to that file in your database, or just save the image itself in the database (then you don't need to worry about the path at all).
Then you can use an Image Servlet (there an article in the ServletsFaq that talks about this) to serve the image on later requests.
In order to process such a form on the server side, it's easiest to use a library that handles parsing the request parameters, for example, the Apache Commons FileUpload library.
The filename sent with the form is the name of the file on the client--in other words, if I'm upload a file to your site, the filename sent by my browser will be the filename on *my* system. It may or may not include complete path information (again, on *my* machine)--that behavior depends on the browser. The name of the file on *my* machine is useless to you.
Your application, on the *server* side, should save the file locally. *That* filename, including the path, is what you should store in your database, and use an image servlet as previously mentioned to send it back to a client. I'm not a fan of storing the images themselves in the database.