***Here are the results that I consistently get for integers along with the results I would get by using the Math class:

Enter an integer exponent: 20

Using int only:26 to the 2 power = 676

Math class: 26.0 to the 2.0 power = 676.0

Using int only:26 to the 3 power = 17576

Math class: 26.0 to the 3.0 power = 17576.0

Using int only:26 to the 4 power = 456976

Math class: 26.0 to the 4.0 power = 456976.0

Using int only:26 to the 5 power = 11881376

Math class: 26.0 to the 5.0 power = 1.1881376E7

Using int only:26 to the 6 power = 308915776

Math class: 26.0 to the 6.0 power = 3.08915776E8

Using int only:26 to the 7 power = -558124416

Math class: 26.0 to the 7.0 power = 8.031810176E9

Using int only:26 to the 8 power = -1626332928

Math class: 26.0 to the 8.0 power = 2.08827064576E11

Using int only:26 to the 9 power = 665016832

Math class: 26.0 to the 9.0 power = 5.429503678976E12

Using int only:26 to the 10 power = 110568448

Math class: 26.0 to the 10.0 power = 1.41167095653376E14

Using int only:26 to the 11 power = -1420187648

Math class: 26.0 to the 11.0 power = 3.670344486987776E15

Using int only:26 to the 12 power = 1729826816

Math class: 26.0 to the 12.0 power = 9.5428956661682176E16

Using int only:26 to the 13 power = 2025824256

Math class: 26.0 to the 13.0 power = 2.4811528732037366E18

Using int only:26 to the 14 power = 1131823104

Math class: 26.0 to the 14.0 power = 6.450997470329715E19

Using int only:26 to the 15 power = -637370368

Math class: 26.0 to the 15.0 power = 1.677259342285726E21

Using int only:26 to the 16 power = 608239616

Math class: 26.0 to the 16.0 power = 4.360874289942888E22

Using int only:26 to the 17 power = -1365639168

Math class: 26.0 to the 17.0 power = 1.1338273153851507E24

Using int only:26 to the 18 power = -1146880000

Math class: 26.0 to the 18.0 power = 2.947951020001392E25

Using int only:26 to the 19 power = 245891072

Math class: 26.0 to the 19.0 power = 7.664672652003619E26

Using int only:26 to the 20 power = 2098200576

Math class: 26.0 to the 20.0 power = 1.992814889520941E28

George Willis wrote:Just playing around, but noticed that if I use integers only and simple multiiplication to get my exponent results (in this instance I was looking into Base 26) what is returned is odd, BUT consistent results once I surpass the integer upper limit of 2,147,483,647. I anticipated that once this limit was reached the program would blow up somehow, but no. Can anyone explain why I get these consistent results? Just curious.

The whole number data types, such as byte, short, int, long, simply circles around when handling overflows... meaning adding one to the maximum value will generate a result of the minimum value.

Henry

George Willis wrote:Just playing around, but noticed that if I use integers only and simple multiiplication to get my exponent results (in this instance I was looking into Base 26) what is returned is odd, BUT consistent results once I surpass the integer upper limit of 2,147,483,647. I anticipated that once this limit was reached the program would blow up somehow, but no. Can anyone explain why I get these consistent results?

Because the return type (

`double`) can handle values

*much*larger than an integer can (it has 64 bits to store them in for a start; an

`int`only has 32). The only thing you need to be aware of is that once you get over 2^53 (approximately 10^16), the values will NOT be exact - which is why you should never use doubles to hold precise

*decimal*values (like money).

For more information, you might want to look at this page.

Winston

"Leadership is nature's way of removing morons from the productive flow" - Dogbert

Articles by Winston can be found here

__for whole numbers only__as doubles. Some fractions, e.g. 2.5 exactly can be stored precisely as doubles, but most can't.

If you want precision, avoid floating‑point arithmetic; it is designed for range not precision. Use this for precise decimal fractions and this for integers too big to fit into a long.

I think there are some languages which throw Exceptions if you get an arithmetic overflow, but Java® doesn't. Otherwise you could never calculate hash codes.

Campbell Ritchie wrote:Are you sure it is 2⁵³?

Yup; pretty sure. The "mantissa" in IEEE-754 is only 52 bits long, but it has some "clever stuff" to deal with insignificant bit values (like 0) as I recall, so the actual 'integer' values correspond to 2^53 (or 15.95 significant decimal digits), possibly ± 1 or 2.

Winston

"Leadership is nature's way of removing morons from the productive flow" - Dogbert

Articles by Winston can be found here

And I am not having you on! They have a fiddle to fit 53 bits into the 52 available.

It is sorta covered in the JavaRanch Style Guide. |