If you are specifying mapping resources using <mappingResources> tag, don't prefix with "classpath:".
Items in <mappingResources> are passed as they are to Hibernate without Spring pre-processing the "classpath:" prefixes, and Hibernate doesn't understand what to do with the "classpath:" prefixes. Hence your error.
A better option is to use <mappingLocations> instead of <mappingResources>, because you can specify "classpath:" in them. It's a subtle difference.
I tried to reproduce your problem in a Eclipse dynamic web project - copy pasted all your configuration files, created matching package structure, added Spring 4.1 and hibernate 5.1.0 libs.
It's all working fine for me. I don't think there is anything wrong with your configuration files now.
Googling some parts of the exception traces leads to this discussion where somebody has got the same exception as you.
Apparently, one possible cause is if Hibernate and/or Spring are added to the Eclipse build path as a "User library" with "System library" checkbox checked.
Have you added them as a "User Library" or something? In my case, I just copied all the JARs into WebContent/lib and refreshed the project. Maybe you can remove any User Libraries you have added and try this approach.