Groovy is another one of those general purpose and scripting languages. It's also a JVM language, meaning it is interoperable with Java and the syntax is very similar. Kotlin is also gaining a good following, especially in the Android space.
1) C#, while nice, it's tied to the Microsoft ecosystem. Yeah, there are open source options, but they aren't widely used.
2) As to Mr Ritchie's question on as to which is compiled and which is scripted, I answered that yesterday and my comment disappeared overnight. The answer was Java is compiled, Python interpreted. The question is: why did my answer disappear? Considering how slow coderanch has been in responding the past 2-3 days, is there a problem somewhere?